Several buildings which had suffered little damage due to the earthquake were destroyed by the fire. The brand new Opera House, opened only six months before under the ill-fated name Phoenix Opera , was burned to the ground. Inside, the 70,volume royal library as well as hundreds of works of art, including paintings by Titian, Rubens, and Correggio, were lost. The precious royal archives disappeared together with detailed historical records of explorations by Vasco da Gama and other early navigators.
The Royal Hospital of All-Saints the biggest public hospital at the time was consumed by fire and hundreds of patients burned to death. The tomb of national hero Nuno Alvares Pereira was also lost.
PDF Nuno Álvares herói e santo (Portuguese Edition)
Visitors to Lisbon may still walk the ruins of the Carmo convent, which were preserved to remind Lisboners of the destruction. Many animals sensed danger and fled to higher ground before the water arrived. The Lisbon quake is the first documented case of such a phenomenon in Europe.
Due to a stroke of luck, the royal family escaped unharmed from the catastrophe. King Joseph I of Portugal and the court had left the city, after attending mass at sunrise, fulfilling the wish of one of the King's daughters to spend the holiday away from Lisbon. After the catastrophe, Joseph I developed a fear of living within walls, and the court was accommodated in a huge complex of tents and pavilions in the hills of Ajuda, then on the outskirts of Lisbon.
The King's claustrophobia never waned, and it was only after Joseph's death that his daughter Maria I of Portugal began building the royal Palace of Ajuda, which still stands on the site of the old tented camp. Bury the dead and feed the living, he is reported to have said, and with the pragmatism that characterized his coming rule, the Prime Minister immediately began organizing the recovery and reconstruction. He sent firefighters into the city to extinguish the flames, and ordered teams to remove the thousands of corpses. Time was short to dispose of the corpses before disease spread.
Contrary to custom and against the wishes of representatives of the Church, many corpses were loaded onto barges and buried at sea beyond the mouth of the Tagus. To prevent disorder in the ruined city, and, in particular, as a deterrant against looting, gallows were constructed as high points around the city and at least 34 were executed. The Portuguese Army was mobilised to surround the city to prevent the able-bodied from fleeing, so that they could be pressed into clearing the ruins.
Not long after the initial crisis, the prime minister and the King quickly hired architects and engineers, and less than a year later, Lisbon was already free from debris and undergoing reconstruction. The King was keen to have a new, perfectly ordained city. Big squares and rectilinear, large avenues were the mottos of the new Lisbon. At the time, somebody asked the Marquis of Pombal the need of such wide streets. The Marquis answered: one day they will be small. Indeed, the chaotic traffic of Lisbon reflects the wisdom of the reply. Pombaline buildings are among the first seismically-protected constructions in the world.
Small wooden models were built for testing, and earthquakes were simulated by marching troops around them.
Lisbon's "new" downtown, known today as the Pombaline Downtown Baixa Pombalina , is one of the city's famed attractions. The earthquake shook much more than cities and buildings. Lisbon was the capital of a devout Catholic country, with a history of investments in the church and evangelisation in the colonies. Moreover, the catastrophe struck on a Catholic holiday and destroyed almost every important church. For 18th century theology and philosophy, this manifestation of the anger of God was difficult to explain.
The earthquake strongly influenced many thinkers of the European Enlightenment. The arbitrariness of survival motivated Voltaire's Candide and its satire of the idea that this was "the best of all possible worlds"; as Theodor Adorno wrote, "[t]he earthquake of Lisbon sufficed to cure Voltaire of the theodicy of Leibniz" Negative Dialectics In the later twentieth century, following Adorno, the earthquake has sometimes been analogized to the Holocaust as a catastrophe so tremendous as to have a transformative impact on European culture and philosophy.
The concept of the sublime, though it existed before , was developed in philosophy and elevated to greater importance by Immanuel Kant, in part as a result of his attempts to comprehend the enormity of the Lisbon quake and tsunami.
Nuno Álvares Pereira - WikiVividly
Kant published three separate texts on the Lisbon earthquake. Through the broad later influence of theories of the sublime, the Lisbon earthquake was one factor in a sea change in European aesthetic thought, with an effect which would not be fully appreciated until the late 19th century. The young Kant, fascinated with the earthquake, collected all the information available to him in news pamphlets, and used it to formulate a theory of the causes of quakes.
Kant's theory, which involved the shifting of huge subterranean caverns filled with hot gases, was though ultimately shown to be false one of the first systematic modern attempts to explain earthquakes by positing natural, rather than supernatural, causes. According to Walter Benjamin, Kant's slim early book on the earthquake "probably represents the beginnings of scientific geography in Germany. And certainly the beginnings of seismology. Werner Hamacher has claimed that the earthquake's consequences extended into the vocabulary of philosophy, making the common metaphor of firm "grounding" for philosophers' arguments shaky and uncertain: "Under the impression exerted by the Lisbon earthquake, which touched the European mind in one [of] its more sensitive epochs, the metaphorics of ground and tremor completely lost their apparent innocence; they were no longer merely figures of speech" The banner he chose as his personal standard bore the image of the cross, of Mary and of the saintly knights James and George.
At his own expense he built numerous churches and monasteries, among which was the Carmelite church in Lisbon and the church of Our Lady of Victories at Batalha. Not wanting to give the enemy room to manoeuvre, John I and his supreme general took the offensive and raided several Castilian towns, defeating once again a much larger Castilian army at the Battle of Valverde. He continued to watch out for Juan I of Castile, until his death in When hostilities ended, he gave the bulk of his wealth to the veterans.
There he lived until his death on Easter Sunday of He was noted for his prayer, his practise of penance and his filial devotion to the Mother of God. Nuno suffered from debilitating arthritis. During the last year of his life, King John I went to visit and embrace him for the last time. His epitaph read:.
His worldly honors were countless, but he turned his back on them. He was a great Prince, but he made himself a humble monk. He founded, built and endowed this church in which his body rests.
- 7 Things You Might Not Know About Nuno - Wolves Blog?
- Borralho, Maria Luiza.
- Álvares Pereira, Nuno Saint [WorldCat Identities].
He was celebrated liturgically on 1 April as an obligatory memorial by the Order of Carmelites and as an optional memorial by the Order of Discalced Carmelites. According to a recent statement by the postulator general of the Carmelite Order, his canonisation was postponed for diplomatic reasons the Portuguese ambassador indicated that the time was not right.
On 3 July Pope Benedict XVI signed two decrees in Rome, promulgating the heroic virtues of Nuno and the authenticity of a miracle that had already been previously confirmed as such by medical and theological commissions. The Carmelites now celebrate St Nuno on 6 November; the date also appointed for his feast in Portugal. Through his prayers may we too deny ourselves, and devote ourselves to you with all our hearts. We ask this through Christ, Our Lord.
The Blessed Nuno Society is a mission society and prayer apostolate officially recognized by the Catholic Church as a diocesan Private Association of the Christian Faithful and affiliated with, the Catholic Diocese of Duluth, Minnesota. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne.
His long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory ; he was also referred to as "the Good", sometimes "the Great", and more rarely, especially in Spain, as "the Bastard" Bastardo.
Ferdinand I , sometimes called the Handsome or occasionally the Inconstant , was the King of Portugal from until his death in His death led to the —85 crisis, also known as the Portuguese interregnum. Following her father's death without a legitimate male heir, she claimed the Portuguese throne, but lost her claim to her uncle, who became King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz. The result was a decisive victory for the Portuguese, ruling out Castilian ambitions to the Portuguese throne, ending the —85 Crisis and assuring John as King of Portugal.
The — Portuguese interregnum was a time of civil war in Portuguese history when no crowned king reigned. It began when King Ferdinand I died without a male heir, and ended when King John I was crowned in after his victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota. Portuguese interpret this era as their earliest national resistance movement countering Castilian intervention; Robert Durand considers it the "great revealer of national consciousness.
Leonor Teles was queen consort of Portugal by marriage to King Ferdinand I, and one of the protagonists, along with her brothers and her daughter Beatrice, of the events that led to the succession crisis of —, which culminated in the defeat of her son-in-law King John I of Castile and his armies in the Battle of Aljubarrota.